INDIA INDEPENDENCE DAY | 15 AUGUST 1947 | History

  INDEPENDENCE DAY OF INDIA 



15 AUGUST 1947


India, the country of colors, a beautiful land of pride & joy was declared as an Independent Nation on the 15th of August, 1947. Every year, on 15 August, the whole country proudly celebrates Independence day. This day not only spreads joy or happiness among people but also unites the people to come up together as a single Nation. Every person of India commemorates this holy land as his/her mother. On the auspicious occasion of India's Independence Day, there is an official national holiday countrywide. 

On 15 August 1947, After a great struggle of many years, freedom fighters were able to liberate the country. On 15 August 1947, the UK parliament transferred legislative sovereignty to the Indian Constituent Assembly followed by the Indian Independence Act



History (National Struggle)  


Freedom fighters struggled for independence not for one or two years but for around 90 years. There was a contribution of many political movements for the Independence Of India. The first revolt for Independence was of soldiers & people against Britishers. Many organized movements took place. The national struggle also included the Partition of Bengal.



George Nathaniel Curzon, the Vice-Roy & Governor-General of India divided Bengal into two provinces- Assam & Eastern Bengal, with Calcutta as its capital & Dhaka as the capital of Assam.

India gave support to the United Kingdom during the First World War by contributing money, materials, etc. Many Indian soldiers also died in this war & were martyred. The tax rates were increased which made people restless. Afterward, the British parliament decided to give some rights related to farming, local govt to the people of India.

In 1919, an act was passed named Rowlatt Act, which resulted in protests in many public places. According to this act govt. got many powers to arrest the people without any trial. The government also took control of newspapers. People named the Rowlatt Act as Black Act.



In December 1929, INC (Indian National Congress) launched a Civil Disobedience movement against Britishers. This movement was led by Mahatma Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Bapu.

In 1931, Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed under which the government set all prisoners free. On the 8th of August, 1942 a movement named Quit India Movement was launched. It was basically launched to make India free of British rule & was against sending Indians to World War II. This movement was supported by a large proportion.


Partition Of India


At the time of Independence, British India was divided into two dominions- India, which is the Republic Of India now & Pakistan, which is the Islamic Republic Of Pakistan & the People's Republic Of Bangladesh. The division is based on Hindu or Muslim majorities. At the time of partition, The three provinces were divided, Punjab, Assam & Bengal. Over 14 million people got displaced, partition resulted in violence. The regions like Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal & Maldives were unaffected by the division. 

The partition of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) & Burma (Myanmar) was not included in the partition of British India. Later on in the year 1971, Bangladesh also got liberated from Pakistan. 



Two Nation Theory


Two Nation Theory was the ideology of Muslims for a separate Nation. It was the founding principle of the Pakistani MovementMuhammad Ali Jinnah, leader of the All India Muslim League stressed the creation of Pakistan for Muslims as they had a minority compared with the majority of Hindus. Their minority feared the Muslim leaders as they didn't want to get submerged under the great majority of Hindus. Therefore they demanded a separate nation. 

At the time of Independence, the Pakistan dominion was given charge of the region, West PunjabSindhEastern Bengal, The Pathan Province of North-West frontier. The rest of British India came under the Indian dominion. 


Consequences Of Partition 


Partition resulted in violence, millions of people got displaced. Many people had to leave their homes due to the partition. People who left their region had to leave all their properties, everything. Some people sold their belongings, but many people who had no time for this, left their belongings they are only. 



There were revolts in most parts of the country, many people lost their lives during the partition. Partition resulted in unemployment, scarcity of food, people being left homeless. Many families got broke, many children became orphans. Many Muslims moved to West & East Pakistan & Hindus & Sikhs came to India. In Pakistan, people were forcefully converted to Islam religion which created havoc in the region. People left their everything and ran from there for their safety.  

On 15 August 1947 both India & Pakistan were given the right to remain or remove themselves from the British Commonwealth. In 1949, India decided to remain in the British Commonwealth. Violent clashes between the Hindus, Muslims & Sikhs continued. 

A study using the three decades census shows that around 2.3-3.2 million people were missing in Punjab. Many people including Hindu & Sikh women refused to go back to India, they had a fear that they would never be accepted by their families. Muslim women also had the same fear. In short, the Partition Of British India resulted in deaths, food scarcity & havoc.


How Independence Day Is Celebrated In India?


Independence day celebration includes flag-hoisting ceremonies, cultural events, parades & much more. In many schools, colleges & offices, sweets are distributed. No official word is done on this day. Moreover, a special celebration takes place at Nation's capital, Delhi. Special arrangements are made at Red Fort. On this auspicious occasion, the Prime Minister of the country hosts the tricolor flag of India. Afterward, Our Prime Minister delivers a speech followed by the National Anthem. People who are unable to watch the parade in Delhi, enjoy the parade Live at their homes on Television. 



Flag Hoisting also takes place in many schools, colleges, societies, etc. Cultural events also take place in many colleges. Children wear tri-colored clothes, badges, even paint flags on their cheeks. On this honorable day, people listen to patriotic songs, watching patriotic movies & remember our freedom fighters & martyr soldiers who died for the country. 



  Did You Know Pakistan celebrates Independence Day on 14th of August every year?